Systematic Design of Instruction, The, 7th Edition
Instructional Design : Formative and Summative Assessment
The background section purposefully discussed the first three phases of the model to explain how one arrives at a performance objective. So, you might ask, what is a performance objective? According to Dick and Carey , a performance objective is a specific description of what learners will be able to do when they complete an instructional activity. Figure 3. Table 1. Example action verbs for the performance component. Writing Performance Objectives.
Dick and Carey's model is systematic in nature. The model is a procedural system including ten major process components nine basic steps in an iterative cycle and a culminating evaluation of the effectiveness of the instruction. The final process is to design and conduct summative evaluation, which is an evaluation of the value of the instruction. The systems approach : Dick and Carey pointed out the systematic characteristics of their model:.
Instructional design ID , also known as instructional systems design ISD , is the practice of systematically designing, developing and delivering instructional products and experiences, both digital and physical, in a consistent and reliable fashion towards an efficient, effective, appealing, engaging and inspiring acquisition of knowledge. The outcome of this instruction may be directly observable and scientifically measured or completely hidden and assumed. As a field, instructional design is historically and traditionally rooted in cognitive and behavioral psychology , though recently constructivism has influenced thinking in the field. There are also those who cite that, aside from behaviorist psychology, the origin of the concept could be traced back to systems engineering. The impact of each of these fields is difficult to quantify, however, it is argued that the language and the "look and feel" of the early forms of instructional design and their progeny were derived from this engineering discipline.